Short History of the Spanish music

Spanish History was an unique melting pot of cultures and our musical history shows clear evidence of it: Visigoths  left us his  sacred music( wrongly called mozarabic singing);  Sephardic Jewish influenced  our popular music  until they  were  expelled from  Spain and took their traditions to Turkey or Greece  where they  still    sing  in Ladino ( old Castilian language).  Arabic Music contributed to the  development of the Spanish guitar;   European influences thought France came into Spain  in the Renaissance and Baroque period and  even the King Alfonso X the Wise  collected  various musical trends of the time: Spanish music, Galician, Portuguese, Jewish and Arabic, etc.

Mozarabic Singing  

Luis de Victoria     

Alfonso X ,the wise. 

 Sephardic –Jewish music:

Our classic  music  followed  Italian tracks  with  Arriaga   but fortunately  in the 17th and 18th centuries  Romantic musicians as  Sarasate  or Tárrega continued and  showed  us  our own traditions;  some others  like Barbieri, Chapi, Chueca  or Breton’s  even created  new trends  as the Zarzuela; Post Romantic composers as   Albéniz, Granados, Turina, Falla,  Guridi  or Joaquin Rodrigo   took  nationalist bases and used them for their musical language and  the last composers in the 20th century  as  Gombau, Bernaola, Halffter, Luis de Pablo  abandoned   them to hold  avant- garde  trends.

Classic Music:

Arriaga:  

Sarasate   

Tarrega   

Zarzuela: 

Albéniz       

Granados,     

Turina    

Falla          

Guridi        

Joaquin Rodrigo 

Bernaola: 

If we talk about Folk music we’ve got hundreds of rhythms but it is the jota the most common one (a dance and singing   performed all over the country but especially in Aragón or Navarre).  The Andalusian copla  is a form of popular song   dating  from the  40’s   and strongly supported by Franco’s regime as a symbol of national identity.  Singers as Concha PiquerRocío Jurado ,  or  the  amazing Concha Buika are only a few of them.

Folk Music

Jota:  


Copla:

Concha Piquer  

Rocío Jurado 

Concha Buika   

Flamenco  (Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity)  strongly influenced by the traditional Andalusian folklore is  associated  to the Romani people.   The singer  José Monge ( Camarón de la Isla) ,   the guitar player   Paco de Lucía or the dancer  María Pagés    could be some of the  principal representatives of flamenco.

Flamenco

Paco de Lucía          

 Camarón de la isla  

 María Pagés      

In the  60’s  Anglo-Saxon  music enters Spain  by Los Brincos or los Bravos  who imitated The Beatles’ music; other singers followed  Italian or even French music line- guides.

Los Brincos  

Los Bravos  


In the 70’s   some singers arose their voices against Franco regime claiming to poets or languages (as Catalonian or Basque) banned by the Dictator.  However, those singer such as: Raimond, Paco Ibáñez , Joan Manuel Serrat , LLuis LLacAute could not be silenced.

Serrat 

Raimond:  

Lluis LLac   

Paco Ibáñez  

After  Franco’s death, in the 80’s ,  the  ‘movida’ ( especially in Madrid)  dabbled in newfound freedom and alternative lifestyles not prevented by the restored democratic government. Spanish rock ‘n’ roll, punk, and pop music shot to the forefront and has been unstoppable ever since.  Hundreds of groups  Kaka de Lux, Siniestro total, Radio Futura, los Secretos, Alaska y los Pegamoides,  Héroes del silencio, Loquillo,  El último de la fila,  Gabinete Caligari, etc , were the symbol of 90’s music and remain until now.

Kaka de Luxe 

Alaska y los Pegamoides 

Radio Futura  

Gabinete Caligari  

Héroes del Silencio

El último de la fila

Loquillo:

Nacha Pop  

Miguel Ríos: 

Joaquín Sabina http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Hl1Km-dhUk

Luz casal     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3TiTkSzMquw&feature=related

Mecano http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PlXGG2ZjdIc&list=AL94UKMTqg-9BstZBKbyY-PCl9eAtFjtid&index=2&feature=plcp

Amaral     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0u5hRqRsSs

We cannot include a very long list here but we invite you to find  it out. Sorry for the absences….. but it is a really impossible mission…Have a seat in our virtual Living Room and  enjoy it.

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BLACK ARCHITECTURE

One of the most interesting tourist routes in Guadalajara is the one in the northern province, between the Iberian and the Central  Mountain Systems, where adaptation to harsh environment and climate (the mountain cold and snowfall) has led to a colorful and attractive buildings that we call “black architecture”.

    

This architecture takes its name from the color of slate, mineral composed of shades of gray, purple, blue, brown or blackish silver, which conveniently treated in “slabs” will be the  basis for the construction of houses, livestock buildings, walls and churches.

Housing

Black architecture houses traditionally had two floors: the ground floor, divided into two rooms : one for domestic livestock (cattle, sheep or goats, chickens)  which also provided animal heat  and another one room to their owners;  on the upper floor they stored food reserves, straw and firewood to survive the harshest months of winter.

Its construction is based on natural environmental resources: slate, clay and wood from the environment: oak, pine, poplar or elm, according to the region.

In these kind of  houses exposed to the cold, it is normal to find the doors and windows  opened on the south side only (the sunniest); very small but enough for a little light and ventilation. The rest of the facades are blind in order to have the lowest possible heat loss. These windows and doors that open on the south side have large boxes with wood reinforcements.  The walls ( of a thickness of 50 cm. to 60 cm.) are built settling the slate on a layer of mud mixed with pebbles and straw (a sort of solid adobe).

The interior walls are made with a frame of sticks and light adobe, and  the structure of the house is based on poles to support the beams on which the entablature of the upper floor rests . This one can have poles of various sizes (depending on the roof lean).

The roof, usually on two sides and supported by an entablature,  is built with slabs of slate extended over a layer of mud mixed with straw  to give it greater consistency.

Today, the new houses keep building in the same traditional  way but the rooms and the uses of them  have been adapted to the new needs and characteristics of our time.

The villages municipalities  of the area  have adopted new rules devoted to protect this architectural style such using  black slate exclusive  of the area itself, the prohibition of cables across the street, of flat roofs and terraces  or windows on the roof.

      

 

Auxiliary buildings

They show the same type of construction than the other buildings but these ones are devoted to agriculture or stockbreeding.

Sometimes  sheds  to protect livestock, are built  around the house  as outbuildings ( we call them “Tainos” ) or flocks  in the middle of the fields where the shepherds used to overnight ,  smaller than houses and  with no separate rooms. We also have pigsties and burns.

Other typical structures built with low walls made of slate slabs stacked in horizontal rows served  to enclosure  and protect pastures ,  or to fence the cattle.

 

The churches

The architecture of this area is intended for small populations with resources, techniques and needs quite limited, so that in this architecture, necessarily, predominates the simplicity and privacy of its users.

Even where the buildings show greater culture, there always are everyday scenes and references to local life. The Romanesque style because of its simplicity, became popular for several centuries and survived  to the extent  that in  more recent times the churches of the area  were built under the Romanesque style, characterized by its adaptation to the needs of small communities and their identification with the architecture around them.

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The Cervantes’ Week

The Cervantes’ week

The old town is transformed from the Golden Age, downtown streets are covered with straw and the corners are filled with actors decked out in costumes of the various guilds of the time. In the Cervantes’ square, Medieval Market takes place.

There you can find artisan food: as pies, honey and liqueurs. They also sell tools, dried flowers, dolls and decorative items.

The whole city becomes an outdoor theater, full of actors and musicians who do performances that give a festive stuff  to the medieval city. Moreover, the streets have free roaming animals such as eagles, horses, chickens, donkeys or cows, which end to give that colorful medieval life to the old town.

The Cervantes’ baptism day, on 9th october, is the most important day: From early morning, everyone who wants can sign up to read aloud an extract from “Don Quixote” in the Cervantes’ square. The City of Alcalá give the awards and the celebration of various cultural events complete the Cervantes’ week.

By Raquel Castillejo

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The Hosquillo Natural Park

Through pine trees and the river “Escabas”…from the high cliffs that enclose the valley, and important nesting raptor species that are endangered…

                        This place was opened the 22th of October 1964; and was named “parque cinegético Experimental”.

It’s main function was restock species such as deer, fallow deer, mountain goat, roe deer, mouflon and wild boar. “El Hosquillo” with about 1,000 hectares, contains a large number of wildlife species and different Spanish ecosystems.

Besides the research, management and Semi-free breeding of animals; this Park offers an excellent natural setting for the realization of environmental education activities, for which it has a hunting lodge and an Interpretation Center (that has some stuffed animals).

Bears are the most important animals in this park for 40 years. This  bears are living in a naturally enclosed space by impressive limestone walls. Here they have a male and three females (Mateo, Sabina, Silvia and Ginebra).

You can visit this incredible natural space with a guide and with a reservation.

By Raquel Castillejo

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BEFORE GOING TO SPAIN…

L'AgnataWe are preparing to leave next February for our Comenius project “Mare Nostrum”. The next meeting in Spanish school will be the final step of this project started in October 2010. For that date we have to prepare a “Sardinian rural house” which will be presented to our partners in order to build a common rural house, an “European Rural House”.
On 17th December, we, students of classes 4A social science and 4B and 4C pedagogical with our teachers Mr. Fais, Mr. Borrotzu, Mrs. Marras, Mrs. Falchi, Mrs. Secci and Mrs. Solinas, went to Tempio Pausania to visit the farm holiday “L’Agnata” which is very well known because of its owner, the famous singer and song-writer Fabrizio De Andrè.
After two hours journey by bus and 15 minutes through a dirt road we reached a very beautiful place surrounded by magnificent mountains and a huge green park with a lake that gave us a feeling of serenity and the desire to spend there a holiday.
The two housekeepers received us with open arms, they were friendly and helpful, patient with all the answers we asked them.
The guided us through the two sections of the big house: the private one with the private bedrooms of the Moon and the Sun which were furnished very simply and the host section enriched with a marvellous swimming pool in the open air. GORGEOUS!!!!!The garden
Finally we had a coffee in the big dining room.
Our tour was accompanied by a cute little dog wagging around.
At about 12.30,hungry, we headed for the farm holiday “Il Muto di Gallura” located near the town of Aggius, to enjoy the lunch. During the lunch we enjoyed socializing between us and the waitresses were very kind and polite. It has also been an occasion to taste the delicious wine of Luras.
In the afternoon we visited the ethnographic Museum of Galluras, in Luras were the Guide showed us the wonders of the Sardinian tradition kept by him with jealousy. Structured on the basis of an old House the museum still contains the family heirlooms and antiques. At 6.30 p.m we catched the bus to return to Nuoro where, now standing by throughout the day, we turned off the latest energy singing and laughing. It was a different experience that we lived with interest and participation, and we look forward to meeting the Spanish friends. See you on the next episode….

bye – bye

Francesco, Claudia, Laura, Giulia, Chiara

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Introduction for the spanish Comenius meeting!

Hello all!

Some of you already know that you are coming to Spain. We really look forward to seeing you here!

In the mean time, we think it is good that you introduce yourselves. Please do so by replying to this post and later on you can add each counterpart in Facebook!

We hope that you all have fun!

Welcome sailors! Bienvenidos marineros!

Irene Yera

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Typical costumes of Castilla la Mancha

Hi,

you can find a new article about costumes of Castilla-La Mancha here.

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